By Major Geoffrey Irving, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve
. . . . First, the Supreme Court required that any use of racial classification must have focused and measurable objectives. In other words, the government must state its compelling interests in a measurable way.
Second, the Supreme Court required that even if there is a compelling interest, the use of racial classifications cannot employ race in a negative manner (e.g., disadvantage any person because of their race) or involve racial stereotyping (e.g., assuming someone will have particular attributes because of their race alone.)
Third, and somewhat uniquely, the Supreme Court required the use of racial classification have a logical end point, after which racial classifications would no longer be necessary.
The Naval Academy uses race as a factor when admitting students. It does not use quotas, but rather uses race in a holistic manner. However, the Academy’s holistic consideration of race produces notably stable admission rates by race. See Figure 1.